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Figure 14 Ring chromatograms of spot test. (A) samples are spotted on the chromatographic plate; (B) circular chromato-grams are developed with too weak a solvent (4), too strong a solvent (5) and a suitable one (6).

Figure 15 Sugar separation: (A) high performance radial chromatography in the U-chamber, and (B) linear separation performed on high performance TLC plate. (Reproduced with permission from Vitek RKand Kent DM (1978) High performance radial chromatography. International Laboratory 73.

1 (heptane-diethyl ether-dichloromethane, 4:3 : 2) in two opposite directions: 1A, 1B. When both eluent fronts reach the zone R2-R4 the plate is removed from the chamber and dried. Afterwards the plate is turned through 90° and developed with eluent

2 (chloroform-ethanol-benzene, 36 : 1 : 4) in two opposite directions: 2A and 2B. Before each development the chamber is saturated for 3 min with eluent vapour. After development the plate is sprayed with 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol, dried and heated for

Figure 16 Circular chromatography on pre-coated silica gel high performance TLC plate. Lipophilic dyes, mobile phase; hexane-chloroform-NH3 70 : 30. (Reproduced with permission from Ripphahn J and Halpaap H (1977) Application of a new high-performance layer in quantitative thin-layer chromatography. In: Zlatkis A and Kaiser RE (eds) HPTLC High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, p. 204. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Figure 16 Circular chromatography on pre-coated silica gel high performance TLC plate. Lipophilic dyes, mobile phase; hexane-chloroform-NH3 70 : 30. (Reproduced with permission from Ripphahn J and Halpaap H (1977) Application of a new high-performance layer in quantitative thin-layer chromatography. In: Zlatkis A and Kaiser RE (eds) HPTLC High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, p. 204. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Figure 17 Anticircular U-chamber (Camag). M, mobile phase; P, high performance TLC plate; L, layer. (Reproduced with permission from Bauer K, Gros L and Sauer W (1991) Thin Layer Chromatography - An Introduction, p. 41. Heidelberg: Huthig Buch Verlag.)

5 min at 100°C. The chromatogram shown in Figure 12B was observed in visible or UV light (366 nm).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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