Ne2r0 a 4m0kTar0

where k is the relative dielectric constant; s0 is the permittivity of free space (C2 N_1 m-1); a is the particle radius (m); E0 is the electric field (Vm_1); t is the

[3ar2 — r0(K + 2) + a3(K — 1)]eE0 cos i kTr0(K + 2)

ena vN0 2

sin 0 d0

Figure 3 Modes of particle charging. -♦-, field charging; -■-, diffusion charging; -A-, total charge; -x-, Boltzman charge AC. (Data from Kanazawa etal. (1993) Journal ofElectrostatics 29: 193. Copyright: Elsevier Science.)

Figure 3 Modes of particle charging. -♦-, field charging; -■-, diffusion charging; -A-, total charge; -x-, Boltzman charge AC. (Data from Kanazawa etal. (1993) Journal ofElectrostatics 29: 193. Copyright: Elsevier Science.)

where A is the surface area of the particle on which ions may impinge (m2); ns is the saturation charge; 60 is the greatest angle of region from z axis (rad).

This expression agrees well with measured charging rates.

Representative saturated particle charge as a function of particle radius is presented in Figure 3.

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Solar Panel Basics

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