Modes of Pyrolysis

Many practitioners still prefer to fabricate their own pyrolysers without a true appreciation of the many factors that influence the results. Both inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities are affected by introducing self-inflicted intangibles, inevitably reflected in differences of design and operating conditions.

The scale of these problems was highlighted by the outcome of the European PGC Correlation Trials arranged by the Gas Chromotography Discussion Group (now the Chromatographic Society) as long ago as 1968-1975; this was later duplicated on the same samples by Walker et al. in the USA. Gratifying-ly, the two sets of results were encouragingly similar but, sadly, not identical.

However, despite serious efforts to introduce effective levels of standardization in both apparatus and practice, the technique fell into disrepute. This was principally due to a plethora of home-made pyrolysers, the conditions of their use and, finally, the total inability of inexperienced would-be practitioners to recognize the many pitfalls. Even worse, the method became stigmatized as 'dirty analysis' because of the damning evidence of tarry and/or carbonaceous residues remaining in the pyrolysis zone. The philosophy was that incomplete analysis has little credibility unless an experiment is focused on the observation of a unique independent event which is an indisputable marker of a specific situation.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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