Modes of Development Forced Flow Overpressured Layer Chromatography and Centrifugal

Figure 1 Comparison of the efficiency of analytical TLC and HPTLC chromatographic plates when used with capillary action and forced-flow planar chromatography (FFPC). NUS, normal unsaturated chamber; UM, ultramicrochamber; NUS, normal saturated chamber.

niques enable the advantage of optimum mobile phase velocity to be exploited over almost the whole separation distance without loss of resolution. This effect is independent of the type of forced flow.

Although FFPC can be started with a dry layer, as in classical TLC, the forced-flow technique also enables fully online separation in which the separation can be started on a stationary phase equilibrated with the mobile phase, as in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following FFPC combinations of the various offline and online operating steps are feasible:

• Fully offline process: the principal steps, such as sample application, separation, and detection are performed as separate operations

• Offline sample application and online separation and detection

• Online sample application and separation and offline detection

• Fully online process: the principal steps are performed as nonseparate operations.

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