Microti ltration

Microfiltration is used to separate suspended solids or colloidal particles between 0.1 and 10 |im in diameter from solution. Most of the chromatography applications are microfiltration based. The same type of membrane with different pore size is used for these applications. The membrane acts like a physical sieve. The fluid passes through tortuous channels while the particles are rejected on the surface of the filter. It can be easily understood as a mechanical sieve with pores leading into a capillary forming a tortuous path; within this tortuous path, there could be mechanical entrapment and adsorption (Figure 1).

Microfiltration membranes can be subjected to harsher conditions compared to ultrafiltration membranes. Membranes of different polymers in varying pore sizes are available. Even nominally the same pore-size membranes of a polymer may differ from each other in filtration characteristics because they may have different pore-size distributions, i.e. varying pore size all across the membrane. To aid in wetting, many membranes have some surfactant pretreatment and their effective pore size may be different from the real pore size. Often a membrane filter becomes more efficient as small particles are entrapped within the pores. The large particles captured on the filter can also alter the effective particle-size rejection in subsequent filtration. Filter capacity may vary depending on the solute particle-size variation in the feed. Uniform size particles result in faster clogging of filters.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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