Microbial Challenge Test

The absolute rating of a membrane is determined by challenging with test organisms (Table 3). The volume of the feed is such that it averages out to one organism per pore on the membrane surface. The absolute rated membrane is accepted if no more than one organism is present in the permeate.

A membrane with a pre-rating of 0.22 |im is acceptable for liquid filtration sterilization. The ability of a membrane to remove bacteria is dependent on the size of the pores and the thickness of the membrane. There is a finite number of specific bacteria, which can be retained by the membrane before it becomes effectively clogged.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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