Membrane Fouling Gel and Cake Formation

The filtration membranes may start fouling during use. This means that particles start attaching on the surface and in the internal porous structure of the membrane. Large suspended or colloidal particles usually are the cause of fouling. Fouling is a result of van der Waals forces, electrostatic attraction, or hydrogen bonding. The fouling of filter media results in a reduction in membrane permeability and uncontrolled solute removal efficiency. The pretreatment of the feed can be helpful in delaying or completely avoiding fouling. Gel formation and cake formation on the surface can be reversible and filter media can be reused. Macromolecules and some interacting small organic molecules can result in gel formation on the filtration surface.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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