Membrane Electrolysis

A typical example of this kind of application is the membrane electrolysis of sodium chloride to produce chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide (membrane chlor-alkali process). A schematic diagram for this process is presented in Figure 7. Perfluorocarbon cation exchange membranes for chlor-alkali processes should have an anisotropic structure in their cross-section. The cathode side of the membrane has a thin layer of carboxylic acid groups of a given ion exchange capacity, and the anode side of the membrane has a thick sulfonic acid group layer or a car-boxylic acid group layer of high ion exchange capacity. Ion exchange membranes can also be applied for the electrodialysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The technology exploiting a solid polymer electrolyte method is efficient when perfluorocar-bon cation exchange membranes are used in the form of a stack with catalytic electrodes covering the membrane surfaces. Ion exchange membranes are also used as separators in organic synthesis by electrolysis. A typical example is the hydrodimerization of acryl-onitrile to produce adiponitrile.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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