Low Voltage Paper Electrophoresis

Strips of paper arranged either vertically or horizontally and moistened with the buffer were used. The application of the voltage (2-10 V cm-1) used to perform separations generated some heat, but this was generally carried away by evaporation when the open strip method was used. In the open strip technique the paper was suspended between the electrodes in the saturated gaseous phase of the developing chamber. This suspension was accomplished in a wide variety of ways, with one review of the technique stating that: 'Paper has been arranged in this chamber in almost every conceivable configuration, but it is usually either pulled horizontally taut or allowed to hang free from a central support at the apex'. Both the horizontal and hanging strip methods were reported to provide excellent resolution, but the latter was claimed to give better reproducibility. Other configurations included the semi-closed strip, where the paper was supported on one side by a cooled glass surface to enable temperature control, and the closed-strip method where the paper was either held between two glass plates or submerged in a nonpolar immiscible liquid (e.g. heptane or carbon tetrachloride). With the former system, evaporation was not permitted and pressure could be applied so as to control the amount of electrolyte taken up by the paper. Using the nonpolar immiscible liquid method, some heat was removed from the paper by convection and conduction to a thermostatic bath. A simple commercial low voltage paper electrophor-esis apparatus, of the open strip type, is illustrated in Figure 7.

As well as one-dimensional seperations, two-dimensional paper electrophoresis was also performed when needed to improve particular separations.

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Solar Panel Basics

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