Low Molecular Mass Protein Removal

Recent interest in increasing the extracorporeal removal of ft2M has provided insight into the general mechanisms mediating the removal of low molecular mass proteins. A number of studies published in the past 15 years support several general conclusions. First, ft2M removal by low flux unsubstituted cellu-losic membranes is usually negligible, although certain exceptions do exist. Second, the primary mechanism by which ft2M is removed during high flux HD varies widely among membranes. For certain membranes, such as AN69® and particularly PMMA, removal is achieved predominantly or solely by adsorption. At the other end of the spectrum is the cellulose triacetate membrane, for which adsorption is minimal and removal occurs primarily by diffusion. High flux polysulfone and unsulfonated PAN membranes have intermediate adsorptive characteristics and achieve transmembrane ft2M removal by a combination of diffusion and convection. Third, at least for the high flux synthetic membranes, use of convection-based therapies (HF and HDF) increases ft2M removal relative to standard (diffusion-based) HD. Although many clinicians consider ft2M to be surrogate for the low molecular mass protein class of uraemic solutes, this assumption has not been conclusively proved. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to use the abundant transport data available for ft2M to provide insight into the transport charac teristics of other low molecular mass proteins, such as complement activation products and cytokines.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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