KB 1 f kUB f koiB exp

modifier and the concentration of ion pair reagent is varied. The purpose of IPC is to take advantage of these variations in order to achieve a separation.

where f is the fraction of charged analyte in the mobile phase at the given pH value. Addition of an ion pair reagent to the mobile phase mainly influences the retention of the ionized fraction of the analyte. Furthermore, the influence can be treated with the same formalism as for a fully ionized analyte, i.e. eqn [8] takes the following form:

where k0iB is the retention factor of the fully ionized form of the analyte in the absence of the ion pair reagent. Figure 7 shows the retention of a weak base, adenine (pKa = 4.12), as function of pH in the absence and in the presence of an oppositely charged ion pair reagent (5 mm sodium octylsulfon-ate).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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