Ion Formation

Mass spectrometers are used to analyse ionized sample molecules. There are essentially four methods in which a neutral sample molecule (M) can be converted into an ionic species:


(where F# represents an even electron fragment ion, R' a neutral radical, F#+' an odd electron fragment ion, often called a radical ion, and N a neutral species).

(addition of a positively charged species, usually a proton)

(removal of a positively charged species, usually a proton)

The ion sources used in GC-MS make use of each of these four processes in order to form positive or negative ions as appropriate.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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