Ion Exchange and Pollution

Many unusual elements enter environmental waters due to mining and industrial processing of minerals. Several of these elements are toxic and we note especially lead and mercury. There is considerable interest today in the removal from cells of poisonous elements such as Hg2 +, Pb2 + and AsO4~. Once again, even in bacteria, special proteins recognize these ions and either transfer them directly across membranes or release them to specialized pumps for energized movement out of the cell. While bacteria have evolved detoxifying processes, higher animals have not, so humans have to take action to remove the offending elements. The application of a drug may force the offensive element to exchange from the site where it causes damage, becoming bound to the drug when it is excreted.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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