Introduction

Separation involves removal of one or more of the constituent parts from a mixture. A solvent is that constituent of a solution that is liquid in the pure state, is usually present in the larger amount, and has dissolved the other constituent (a solute) of the solution. The solute may be a solid, a liquid or a gas. The solvent may be a single compound or a mixture of compounds. Solvent-based separation techniques become necessary when separation or removal of a solute(s) from a mixture become difficult or in-feasible by conventional separation techniques such as distillation. If the addition of a solvent causes a totally miscible liquid to split into two liquid phases and produce the necessary property difference, the solvent-based separation technique is commonly known as liquid-liquid extraction. If the addition of a solvent causes the coexisting vapour and liquid phases to have different properties, the solvent-based constants in a multiphase system. In addition, the fibre can be made very specific, so separation using chromatographic systems may not be necessary. Therefore development of coupling between SPME with other analytical instrumentation, such as mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry will facilitate high sensitivity and a large throughput.

See also: II/Extraction: Solid-Phase Extraction; Solvent Based Separation. III/Environmental Applications: SolidPhase Microextraction; Solid-Phase Microextraction:

Overview.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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