After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, it is essential that separated protein zones be detected for subsequent analysis, whether this is to be done by simple visual inspection or by quantitative computerized densitometry. In the early days of electrophoresis, methods for the detection of separated zones (ultraviolet absorption, Schlieren optics) were limited and insensitive. The subsequent development of organic dyes able to react with proteins made stains such as Bromophenol Blue and Amido Black 10B popular. In particular, Coomassie Brilliant Blue was for many years the method of choice for protein detection following gel electrophoresis owing to its relatively high sensitivity. However, the need for increased sensitivity resulted in the development of a group of staining methods based on the use of silver (approximately 0.1 ng of protein per band). Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of fluorescent methods of protein detection as they provide high sensitivity equivalent to silver staining combined with excellent linearity and extended dynamic range. Detection methods based on the use of radiolabelling also provide high sensitivity but cannot be applied in all situations. Finally, methods are available for the detection of groups of proteins with specific post-trans-lational modifications, for example glycoproteins, phosphoproteins and lipoproteins.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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