Introduction

Sublimation is not a procedure that is generally regarded as an analytical technique. It is a process, however, by which compounds can be purified or mixtures separated and as such can be of value as a single step or as an integral part of a more complex analytical method. It is applicable to a range of solids of inorganic or organic origin in a variety of different matrices and can be particularly useful when heat-labile materials are involved.

As a method of sample purification sublimation has been used to produce high-purity materials as analytical standards. A specific and common example of sublimation used as a means of purification is the removal of water from heat-labile materials in the process known as freeze-drying. The technique is described more fully below.

As a separation technique fractional sublimation has been used either to purify samples for analysis by removing undesirable components of the matrix or to remove the analyte from the matrix for subsequent analysis.

Logsdon JS and Biegler LT (1990) On the simultaneous optimal design and operation of batch distillation columns. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, Part A 68: 434.

Logsdon JS and Biegler LT (1992) Decomposition strategies for large-scale dynamic optimization problems. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 32: 692.

Logsdon JS and Biegler LT (1993) Accurate determination of optimal reflux policies for the maximum distillate problem in batch distillation. Chemical Engineering Science 47: 851.

McCabe WL, Smith JC and Harriott P (1993) Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.

McCausland I (1985) Introduction to Optimal Control. Malabar, FL: Robert Krieger.

Rao S (1996) Engineering Optimization. New York: John Wiley.

Van Dongen DB and Doherty MF (1985) On the dynamics of distillation processes - VI. Batch distillation. Chemical Engineering Science 40: 2087.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment