Development of antibiotics requires considerable research effort in isolation and purification of the desired compound from a complex matrix such as fermentation broth and crude extract. The purification of antibiotics by liquid-liquid partition dates back to the 1950s when the countercurrent distribution method (CCD) was used for separation of various natural products such as peptide antibiotics, aminoglycoside antibiotics and penicillin. However, CCD had serious drawbacks such as bulky fragile apparatus, long separation times and excessive dilution of samples. In the early 1970s an efficient continuous countercurrent separation method called countercurrent chromatography was introduced followed by the advent of high speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) a decade later. Because of its high partition efficiency and speedy separation,

HSCCC has been widely used for separation and purification of natural products including a number of antibiotics as listed in Table 1. Being support-free chromatographic systems, HSCCC and CCD share important advantages over other chromatographic systems by eliminating complications arising from a solid support such as sample loss and decomposition.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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