Great confusion exists in the literature on the definition of the term bitumen. It occurs in the earth's crust in various forms: firstly, in a dispersed state, in trace quantities; and secondly, as accumulations, where bitumen either impregnates the rock or occurs in a pure or nearly pure form. In the first half of the 20th century, the term bitumen was applied to crude oil and its natural derivatives (maltha, asphalt, ozokerite). In this original meaning, bitumens are called naphthides. The term bitumen is also used for asphalts and asphalt-like manufactured substances utilized in road construction, including products from the processing of coals and/or oil shales. In crude oils, in distillate cuts beginning with kerosene, and in distillation residues, there is a group of high molecular weight heteroorganic compounds that are lumped under the name of resins and asphaltenes. Their content may be as large as 40% in heavy crude oils.

See also: II/Chromatography: Gas: Detectors: Mass Spectrometry. III/Drugs of Abuse: Solid-Phase Extraction.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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