Introduction

Ideally industrial crystallizers are operated in such a way that the product specifications are met under conditions that permit profitable, trouble-free production of the desired crystalline material. In industrial practice, however, many operational problems can be encountered that reduce the performance of the crystallizer. The most commonly encountered problems are listed here.

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• Deposition of crystal solids on the crystallizer internals, often called scaling or fouling. This results in a reduction of the heat transfer in the heat exchanger or leads to plugging of the process lines and can even hamper the flow pattern and thus the mixing in the crystallizer.

• Alternate feed composition. The resulting changes in the level of supersaturation in the crystallizer can lead to nucleation bursts or depletion of secondary nuclei, having a severe effect on the dynamics of the process.

• Disturbances in the heat exchanger in the crystal-lizer. This leads to variation in the production yield and the crystal concentration, which in turn

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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