Introduction

Separation

Separation, as discussed here, is a mechanical means of the following:

• Separating immiscible liquids with different specific gravities (purification).

• Removing insoluble solids from a liquid (clarification if a liquid is the main product; dewatering if the solids are the chief product).

• Removing excess liquid from insoluble solids (thickening with the solids slurry in a more viscous form being the product).

• Some intermediate combination (degritting - removal of oversize particles; desliming - removal of fine particles; or some other form of classification - splitting the slurry into two generally liquid components with the solids being split based on particle size and/or density).

Nichol LW and Winzor DJ (1972) Migration of Interacting Systems. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schachman HK (1959) Ultracentrifugation in Biochemistry. New York: Academic Press.

Schuster TM and Laue TM (eds) (1994) Modern Analytical Ultracentrifugation: Acquisition and Interpretation of Data for Biological and Synthetic Polymer Systems. Boston: Birkhauser.

Svedberg T and Pedersen KO (1940) The Ultracentrifuge. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Williams JW (ed.) (1963) Analytical Ultracentrifugation in Theory and Experiment. New York: Academic Press.

Wills PR, Jacobsen MP and Winzor DJ (1997) Direct analysis of sedimentation equilibrium distributions reflecting macromolecular interactions. Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science 107: 1-10.

Winzor DJ and Harding SE (2000) Sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge as a probe of ligand binding. In: Harding SE and Chowdry PZ (eds) Protein-Ligand Interactions: A Practical Approach. Oxford: IRL Press.

Centrifuges

Centrifuges are usually divided into two types, sedimenting and filtering. Sedimenting centrifuges are characterized by a solid bowl wall and include tubular bowl (Figure 1), disc stack (Figure 2) decanter (Figure 3) and imperforate basket centrifuges. Filtering centrifuges have perforated bowl walls, which support screens or cloth or both and include perforate basket centrifuges, peelers and pushers.

The ultracentrifuge and the gas centrifuge represent special cases that establish separations based on gradients on a molecular scale and are not included in this discussion.

Although centrifuges have been applied industrially for well over a century, centrifuge theory is not well developed. Centrifuges are not designed for specific applications using fundamental principles. Any discussion of centrifuge theory must also define the limitation of the theory. The best means of predicting the performance that will be obtained by processing a material through a centrifuge is to actually process the material through a centrifuge.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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