In the characterization of polymers, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has become a standard technique for determining molar mass averages and molar mass distributions (MMD) of polymers. The principle of SEC is easily understood: owing to limited accessa-bility of the pore volume within the particles of the column packing, polymer molecules are separated according to their hydrodynamic volumes, which can be correlated to their molar mass. Unfortunately, this is not as easy and simple as it looks. There are numerous sources of error and pitfalls in the separation, in the detection and in the treatment of the raw chromatographic data.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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