Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) belongs to the family of liquid partition chromatography but with one distinct feature: the system totally eliminates the use of a solid support. Unlike liquid chromatography (LC), CCC utilizes two immiscible solvent phases. The partition process takes place in an open column where one phase (the mobile phase) continuously passes through the other (stationary phase), which is permanently retained in the column. To retain the stationary phase within the column, the system uses effective combinations of the column configuration and a force field (gravitational or centrifugal). Hence CCC instruments display a variety of forms that are quite different from those used in LC.

Because no solid support is used, CCC can eliminate all the complications arising from the use of a solid support such as adsorptive sample loss and de-naturation, tailing of solute peaks and contamination.

Horvath C (ed.) (1980) High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Advances and Perspectives, vol. 1: History ofHPLC, Chemically, Bonded Phases, Secondary Equilibria, Gradient Elution. New York: Academic Press.

Horvath C (ed.) (1980) High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Advances and Perspectives, vol. 2: Optimisation, Adsorption Chromatography, Reversed-Phase HPLC. New York: Academic Press.

Kucera P (1984) Microcolumn High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Nawrocki J (1997) The silanol group and its role in liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 779: 29-71.

Neue UD (1997) HPLC Columns. Theory, Technology, and Practice. New York: Wiley-VCH.

Novotny M and Ishii D (eds) (1985) Microcolumn Separations. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Scott RPW (1992) Liquid Chromatography Column Theory. New York: Wiley.

Scott RPW (ed.) (1984) Small Bore Liquid Chromatogra-phy Columns: Their Properties and Their Uses. New York: Wiley.

Unger KK (ed.) (1990) Packings and Stationary Phases in Chromatographic Techniques. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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