The process of generating analytical data involves some combination of planning, sampling, sample preparation, quantification, data review and reporting. Initially, each step in the method required comparable effort. Sample preparation, generally involving some form of extraction followed by analyte enrichment, has in the past been a laborious process, with only a few tools available. Likewise, quantification usually consisted of a 'wet' chemistry process such as titration or precipitation. Before the development of personal computers, the planning, sampling, data review and reporting steps also required considerable effort. Since each step presented formidable challenges to the analytical scientist, the relative importance of each step remained about the same.

Modern techniques, particularly chromatography, have changed the situation. The rapid and successful development of gas and liquid chromatography dramatically reduced quantification steps from hours or days to a matter of minutes, often with better accuracy and precision. The other steps in the method, especially sample preparation, were regarded as of secondary importance, serving only to support the ultimate (i.e. chromatographic) step in the method. Since most of the creative - and Rnancial - resources flowed into chromatography development, research in the other areas slowed and sample preparation came to be viewed as the 'low tech' part of the method.

Chromatography is now considered a mature science, being an integral part of nearly every analytical laboratory. The slower pace of chromatographic research, coupled with outside pressures to improve the efRciency of the entire analytical method, has Rnally resulted in an increased interest in sample preparation. These efforts have produced a number of advances that improve efRciency, selectivity and time required. The discussion will provide an overview of some of the many sample preparation principles and techniques available, focusing on the analytical extraction part of the process. The goal is to provide the reader with a more balanced view of this important part of analytical methodology.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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