In ion pair chromatography, the solute ion is distributed between the mobile and the stationary phase together with an ion of opposite charge (a so-called counterion). The technique is often used in reversed-phase chromatography as a convenient method to control the retention of solutes. The principle may, for example, be applied to direct chiral separations using either chiral or achiral counterions. When using an achiral counterion, the chromatographic system has to contain a chiral selector, e.g., a chiral stationary phase. The purpose of an achiral counterion then is to control the retention of the solute. However, the counterion may also influence the stereoselectivity by interactions with the chiral selector molecules. A chiral counterion may, on the other hand, be used with non-chiral stationary phases to promote chiral separation.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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