Interaction of Impurities and Crystal Surfaces

The effect of an impurity that is present in small quantities (parts per million (ppm) level) cannot be explained solely by its effect on solution bulk parameters such as solubility. The phenomenon that is at the root of all the effects of impurities on process performance and product quality is the interaction of the impurity with the crystal surfaces.

Adsorption of the impurity can take place on flat surfaces, at stepped surfaces and at kink sites (Figure 1). The adsorbed compound can impede the movement of steps on the surface. This is a kinetic effect and causes a reduction in the growth rate of the corresponding crystal surface. For instance the induction time, i.e. the time that elapses until the outgrown nuclei are detectable, can increase because the outgrowth of nuclei takes longer.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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