Among the several types of sonicator systems currently available, mostly bath and probe-type sonicators are used. Both systems are based on an electromagnetic transducer (i.e. device capable of converting mechanical or electrical energy into high frequency sound) as a source of ultrasound power, commonly operating at a fixed frequency of 20 kHz.

Ultrasonic sources used now rely on the piezoelectric effect discovered by Curie (1880). Ultrasonic processors implement transducers which are based on the changes in dimension of some materials on application of an electrical potential across opposite faces. When the potential is modulated at high frequency, the material converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy (sound). A sufficiently high alternating potential will result in the generation of ultrasound. The first ultrasonic transducer was reported by Galton in 1883, who tried to establish the threshold frequency of human hearing.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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