Inorganic Solvent Extractions

The essential prerequisite for an element to be extracted from an aqueous solution is that it be part of a neutral complex. Charge neutrality reduces the electrostatic interactions between the element (analyte of interest) complex and water and therefore lowers the solubility of the complex in water. Consequently, the neutral complex can be extracted into the less polar organic solvent. General attributes and chemical properties that can facilitate separation are: charge neutrality, increase size of complex formed and incorporation of hydrophobic or organophillic properties. These general attributes can be accomplished by several mechanisms including the element associated with naturally occurring complexants, chelate complexes formed with analyte and ion-associated (ion-paired) complexes. All three mechanisms can and will form a neutral complex with the analyte of interest. Depending on the ligands (complex associated with the element) other chemical properties such as complex size and hydrophobic/organophillic properties can be incorporated.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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