Hybrid Separation Systems

Hybrid separation systems combining two or more unit operations have become popular in the 1990s, and there are numerous examples in the journal literature. Many of the examples have combined distillation with a membrane-type technique, thus aiming to utilize the well-known data and methods (and separation efficiency) of distillation with the low temperature advantages offered by membrane systems. Osmotic distillation (or isothermal membrane distillation) has been developed specifically for applications requiring the retention of flavours and fragrances (Chemical Engineering Progress 94(7): 49-61,1998). This hybrid process can concentrate solutes to very high levels at low temperatures and pressures, and it is particularly suitable for sensitive solute materials. It can also effect the selective removal of a single volatile solute from an aqueous solution. The process involves the transfer of volatile components between two inherently miscible liquid streams, separated by a semipermeable membrane, the driving force being provided by differences in component activity between the streams. The strip solution becomes diluted during separation/transfer and must be reconcen-trated by distillation (or evaporation). Many other examples of membrane-distillation systems can be found in the literature. Alternative hybrid systems include crystallization-distillation, solvent extraction-distillation, pervaporation-distillation, and fluidized reaction-distillation. These systems have been described in some detail including patents, although generally the work is directed towards a particular application or problem.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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