History

The first pneumatic flotation cell, which used air sparging through a porous bottom and horizontal slurry flow, was patented in 1914 by Callow. The first countercurrent column flotation device was designed and tested by Town and Flynn in 1919. Cross-current

Hewitt D, Fornasiero D, Ralston J and Fisher LR (1993) Aqueous film drainage at the quartz-water interface. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 89: 817-822.

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Laskowski JS and Ralston J (1992) Developments in Mineral Processing. Colloid Chemistry in Mineral Processing. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Lynch AJ, Johnson NW, Manlapig EV and Thorne CG (1981) Mineral and Coal Flotation Circuits: Their Simulation and Control. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Miklavcic SJ, Horn RG and Bachmann (1995) Colloidal interaction between a rigid solid and a fluid drop. Journal of Physical Chemistry 99: 16357-16364.

Ralston J (1992) The influence of particle size and contact angle in flotation. In: Colloid Chemistry in Mineral Processing, ch. 6. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Scheludko A, Toshev BV and Bojadjiev DT (1976) Attachment of particle to a liquid surface (capillary theory of flotation). Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 72: 2815-2828.

Schulze HJ (1983) Physico-chemical Elementary Processes in Flotation: An Analysis from the Point of View of Colloid Science Including Process Engineering Considerations. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Sutherland KL (1948) Kinetics of the flotation process. Journal of Physical Chemistry 52: 394-425.

Sutherland KL and Wark IW (1955) Principles of Flotation. Melbourne: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

Ye Y and Miller JD (1989) The significance of bubble-particle contact time during collision in the analysis of flotation phenomena. International Journal of Mineral Processing 25: 199-219.

pneumatic flotation machines were widely used in industry in the 1920s and 1930s, but were later replaced by the impeller-type Sotation devices in mineral-processing plants. Dissolved-air Sotation became the main type of Sotation for water treatment applications. These substitutions were the result of the absence of effective and reliable air spargers for Rne bubble generation and the lack of automatic control systems on the early columns. During this period, both the poor Sotation selectivity and entrain-ment of slimes characteristic of impeller-type cells were offset by the use of complex Sow sheets using large numbers of cleaner stages and recycle lines. Column Sotation devices were reintroduced

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

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