Historical Development

applications. The Redlich-Kwong equation (1949) and its modification by Soave (1972), and the Peng-Robinson equations (1976) have broad general application for nonpolar components and are the most widely used, especially in the refining and gas processing industries. For highly nonideal components, use of the EOS requires an appropriate mixing rule. The alternative approach is direct application of liquid activity model parameters in the EOS. A collection of papers relating to the development of the Peng-Robinson EOS over 20 years was published in 1998 (Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 37(5): 1579-1706).

The availability of commercial software packages, e.g. flowsheeting design packages such as HYSYS™ and PROTISS™ (see below), have made the prediction and evaluation of equilibrium data quicker and easier. These packages were generally developed for use by the oil and gas industry and refining companies, and they include extensive VLE prediction equations integrated within the design methods. Some of these prediction methods have been developed specifically for use with common petroleum systems (e.g. Chao-Seader; Grayson-Streed).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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