Heterogeneous Medium

In this case, there are two types of cavitational collapse that can affect the surface of solids (Figure 4): (1) cavitational collapse on the surface of the solid due to the presence of surface defects,

Figure 4 Cavitational effects at a solid-liquid interface: (A) cavitational collapse on the surface of a solid particle; (B) cavita-tional collapse close to a surface of a solid particle.

entrapped gases or impurities; (2) cavitational collapse close to a surface causing a microstreaming of solvent to impinge on the surface (i.e. cleaning action of ultrasound). It has been observed that ultrasonic irradiation can cause particle rupture (i.e. disruption) which results in a decrease in particle size and an increase in surface area for reaction. Alternatively, cavitational collapse in a medium containing two immiscible liquids can cause the formation of an emulsion.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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