Herbicides

Imidazolinones (e.g. imazapyr, imazmetapyr, imazethapyr, imazaquin, etc.) are extracted from soil with 0.1 M ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide (pH 9-10) in a 10-min extraction. A variety of soil samples fortified at 1 to 50 p.p.b. exhibited an average recovery of 92% (standard deviation 13%).

Triazine herbicides have been successfully extracted from soil by MAE with water, methanol, acetone-hexane (1 : 1), dichloromethane, acetonitrile-0.5% ammonia in water (70: 30), dich-loromethane-water (50: 50), methanol-dich-loromethane (10 : 90). Water seems to be preferred since it is very polar solvent and can interact strongly with polar matter in soils to enhance the desorption of triazines; it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent; and it heats up very quickly when irradiated with microwave energy microwave energy. Xiong et al. reported that direct heating of soil with water gave a 73.4% recovery for atrazine from soil and, therefore, stated that 'MAE is not only a simple heating'.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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