Guard Columns

As the name suggests, guard columns are used to protect the main analytical column. They are normally 1 cm in length, of the same diameter as the main column, and made of the same material. They are not extensively used in all application areas, possibly because they can reduce the total column efficiency and are not easy to install or replace. This is set to change with the development of removable end fitting columns. New designs, as shown in Figure 8, now allow easy connection and replacement of guard systems. However, manufacturers still only offer generic packings of either normal phase or reversed phase for these columns. Figure 9 shows a guard column cartridge system that can be connected to any form of column.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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