General

Prediction of arbitrary exchange equilibria requires a set of conditions to be fulfilled:

• conservation of mass

• electroneutrality on the liquid phase

• electroneutrality on the resin phase

• adjustment of equilibrium for the exchange of ions

• dissociation equilibria in the liquid phase.

-0.10 -0.08-0.05-0.03 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 y(Na/K)-y(CI)

Figure 9 Development of the generalized separation factor for the sorption of chloride ions by activated carbon (NORIT ROW 0.8 Supra) from a multicomponent system. LQ =log Q(H, Cl) + mII(H, CO3)y(CO3) — mII(H, Ca)y(Ca) — mn(H, mg)y(mg).

-0.10 -0.08-0.05-0.03 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.10 y(Na/K)-y(CI)

Figure 9 Development of the generalized separation factor for the sorption of chloride ions by activated carbon (NORIT ROW 0.8 Supra) from a multicomponent system. LQ =log Q(H, Cl) + mII(H, CO3)y(CO3) — mII(H, Ca)y(Ca) — mn(H, mg)y(mg).

Mg2+

Mg2+

Mg2+

Figure 10 Comparison of experimental data and predicted equilibria for the ternary system H+/Mg2+/Ca2+ on the weakly acidic resin LEWATIT OC 1046.

Mg2+

Figure 10 Comparison of experimental data and predicted equilibria for the ternary system H+/Mg2+/Ca2+ on the weakly acidic resin LEWATIT OC 1046.

As can easily be shown, the number of equations is always greater than the number of unknown quantities. Therefore, some conditions are fulfilled automatically. The remaining set of coupled nonlinear equations must be solved by appropriate numerical methods.

Respective results for the uptake of inorganic ions by an activated carbon are plotted in Figures 8 and 9. With few exceptions, the equilibrium data satisfactorily fall on linear relationships as predicted by the theoretical approach.

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Solar Panel Basics

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