Gas Chromatographic Methods

Chemical warfare agents have often been referred to as warfare gases and, in the military, the phrase 'gas, gas, gas' has become synonymous with attack by chemical warfare agents. In fact, many chemical warfare agents exist as liquids at ambient temperatures but have varying degrees of volatility and pose a significant vapour hazard as well as a liquid contact hazard. This physical characteristic has made the analysis of chemical warfare agents amenable to gas chromatography (GC) with a variety of detectors including mass spectrometry (MS).

The OPCW, an important end-user of analytical techniques for chemical warfare agents, requires the use of two or more spectrometric techniques and the availability of authentic reference standards for the unambiguous identification of these controlled compounds. For this reason, the combined use of GC-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) has received increased attention as newer technologies have led to detection limits approaching those routinely reported during GC-MS analysis. For analyses involving low levels of chemical warfare agents in the presence of high levels of interfering chemical background, tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) is receiving increased attention.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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