Future Trends

The concurrent need for high performance polymers and low cost membranes has resulted in research into hybrid polymer systems and improved manufacturing processes. Four areas currently being explored are:

1. Polymer blends: A hybrid polymer system in which expensive, high performance polymers form a continuous phase in a multipolymer blend.

Examples include Matrimid/UltemĀ® 1000 and aromatic polyimides/polysulfone.

2. Coextruded composite hollow fibres: An improved hollow-fibre spinning process in which a forming asymmetric substrate is simultaneously coated with a thin film of separating polymer by employing a die similar to that shown in Figure 20. This is a paradigm shift away from separate substrate fabrication and subsequent coating practices. The co-extrusion processes should lower manufacturing costs and relax price constraints on new high performance polymers.

3. Organic/inorganic mixed matrix membranes: A nanocomposite composite is a hybrid in which very small particles of a material with high diffusive selectivity such as a microporous carbon is dispersed with an organic polymer matrix. Such materials combine the high selectivity of the inorganic with the processability of the organic polymer matrix.

4. Computational methods: Molecular modelling of gas transport through rubbery polymers has already proven successful. Its application to glassy polymers is significantly more difficult, primarily because of the poorly defined nature of the glassy state, but significant progress has been made in the last several years. As our understanding of gas-polymer and polymer-polymer interactions improves and merges with advancing computer technology, widespread use of molecular dynamics should provide significant insight into gas separation with polymer membranes.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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