Future Directions

The great advantage of MEKC is the feasibility to manipulate the selectivity simply by changing the composition of the micellar phase. Even though several surfactants have shown their potential to act as micellar pseudo-stationary phase, the versatility of the technique and the range of applications can be further extended by developing new synthetic micelle-forming surfactants like polyelectrolytes or exploiting mixed micelles or biomembranes as pseudo-stationary phases. Understanding the mechanisms involved will greatly facilitate the systematic optimization of the large number of experimental parameters leading to better, faster, easier, and more reliable separations. In addition, studies are still needed to clarify new possibilities to couple MEKC with mass spectrometry.

Table 4 Statistical optimization schemes used in MEKC

Optimized parameter

Parameters varied

Modelling

Selectivity and resolution

pH, [SDS], [borate]

CCDc, desirability functions

Selectivity and resolution

pH, [SDS], [sodium cholate], [AMPSO]a

CCD, desirability functions

Resolution

[acetonitrile], [urea]

Iterative regression strategy

Resolution

9 for a stepwise screening, followed by

Fractional factorial design, full factorial

3: pH, [SDS], [acetonitrile]

design, RSMd

Yield for the derivatization of some

Reaction time, T, ionic strength, pH,

Fractional factorial design, CCD, RSM

dipeptides

[isopropanol]

Selectivity

pH, [SDS]

Iterative regression strategy

Resolution

[SDS], [acetonitrile]

CABRO IIe

Precision and efficiency

[SDS], V, T

FUMIf

Resolution

T, V, ionic strength, [SDS], [HPMC]b,

PLSg

[^-cyclodextrin]

Resolution

[SDS], [urea]

CABRO II

Resolution

pH, [SDS]

CAMOSh

Resolution

pH, [buffer], [SDS], [SDS # sodium

Plackett-Burman statistical design

heptyl sulfate], [acetonitrile]

Resolution

[SDS], [A/,/V-dimethylformamide],

ORMi

ionic strength

Resolution

pH, [SDS], [tetrabutylammonium salt]

ORM

Resolution

pH, [SDS]

ORM

Resolution

[SDS], [isopropanol], [^-cyclodextrin]

Full factorial design

Resolution

pH, [SDS]

Full factorial design

aAMPSO = 3-[(1,2-dimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonicacid; bHPMC = hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; ccentral composite design; ^response surface modelling; "computer-assisted bivariate resolution optimization II; 'function of mutual information; ^partial least squares; ^computer-assisted multivate optimization strategies; 'overlapping resolution mapping. V, voltage; T, temperature.

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