Further Reading

Botz L, Nyiredy Sz and Sticher O (1990) The principles of long distance OPLC, a new multi-layer development technique. Journal of Planar Chromatography 3: 352-354.

Geiss F (1987) Fundamentals of Thin Layer Chromatography (Planar Chromatography). Heidelberg: Hiithig.

Nurok D, Frost MC, Pritchard CL and Chenoweth DM (1998) The performance of planar chromatography using electroosmotic flow. Journal of Planar Chromatography 11: 244-246.

Nyiredy Sz (1992) Planar chromatography. In: Heftmann E (ed.) Chromatography, 5th edn, pp. A109- 150. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Nyiredy Sz and Fate;r Zs (1994) The elimination of typical problems associated overpressured layer chromatogra-phy. Journal of Planar Chromatography 7: 329-333.

Nyiredy Sz, Botz L and Sticher O (1989) ROTACHROM®: A new instrument for rotation planar chromatography (RPC). Journal of Planar Chromatography 2: 53-61.

Nyiredy Sz, Botz L and Sticher O (1990) Analysis and isolation of natural products using the ROTACHROM® rotation planar chromatograph. American Biotechnology Laboratory 8: 9.

Sherma J and Fried B (1995) Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography. New York: Dekker.

Tyihak E and Mincsovics E (1988) Forced-flow planar liquid chromatographic techniques. Journal of Planar Chromatography 1: 6-9.

Tyihak E, Mincsovics E and Kalasz H (1979) New planar liquid chromatographic technique: overpressured thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography 174: 75-81.

Tyihak E, Mincsovics E and Szekely TJ (1989) Overpres-sured multi-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography 471: 375-387.

(mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) etc.), for various other analytical purposes, or for determination of biological activity. PPC is a valuable method of sample purification for preparative purposes and isolation. The scope for modifying operating parameters such as the vapour space, development mode and for offline sample application is enormous in planar chromatography.

In classical PPC the mobile phase migrates by capillary action, whereas if forced-flow PPC (FFPPC) is

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