Further Reading

ChowJC (1995) Measurement methods to determine compliance with ambient air quality standards for suspended particles. J. Air & Waste Management Assoc. 45: 320-382.

Cui W, Eatough DJ and Eatough N (1998) Fine particulate organic material in the Los Angeles Basin - I: Assessment of the high-volume Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System, BIG BOSS. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 48: 1024-1037.

Ding Y, Lee ML and Eatough DJ (1998) The determination of total nitrite and n-nitroso compounds in atmospheric samples. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 69: 243-255.

Eatough DJ (1999) BOSS, the Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System: Determination of particulate carbonaceous material using diffusion denuder sampling technology. In: Douglas Lane (ed.) Gas and Particle Phase Partition Measurements of Atmospheric Compounds, Vol. 2, 233-285. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Eatough DJ, Obeidi F, Pang Y et al. (1999) Integrated and real-time diffusion denuder samplers for PM2.5 based on BOSS, PC and TEOM technology. Atmospheric Environment 33: 2835-2844.

Eatough DJ, Tang H, Cui W and Machir J (1995) Determination of the size distribution and chemical composition of fine particulate semivolatile organic material in urban environments using diffusion denuder technology. Inhal. Toxicol. 7: 691-710.

Fitz DR (1990) Reduction of the positive organic artifact on quartz filters. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12: 142-148.

Fraser MP, Cass GR, Simoneit BRT and Rasmussen RA (1998) Air quality model evaluation data for organics. 5. C6-C22 nonpolar and semipolar aromatic compounds. Environ. Sci. Tech. 32: 1760-1770.

Gundel LA and Lane DA (1998) Direct determination of semi-volatile organic compounds with sorbent coated diffusion denuders. J. Aerosol Sci. 29: S341-S342.

Gundel LA, Lee VC, Mahanama KRR, Stevens RK and Daisey JM (1995) Direct determination of the phase distributions of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using annular denuders. Atmos. Environ. 29: 1719-1733.

Hart KM and Pankow JF (1994) High-volume air sampler for particle and gas sampling. 2. Use of backup filters to correct for the adsorption of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the front filter. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28: 655-661.

Kamens RM, Odum J and Fan Z-H (1995) Some observations on times to equilibrium for semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29: 43-50.

Lane DA and Johnson ND (1993) Vapor and particle phase measurements of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) in ambient air. Poly. Arom. Comp. 13 (Supplement): 511-518.

McDow SR and Huntzicker JJ (1990) Vapor adsorption artifact in the sampling of organic aerosol: face velocity effects. Atmos. Environ. 24: 2563-2571.

F. Musshoff, Institute of Legal Medicine, Bonn, Germany

Copyright © 2000 Academic Press

The use of alcoholic beverages is probably the most ancient social habit worldwide, but alcohol abuse has generated severe problems. Chronic and/or acute alcohol intoxication has been demonstrated to be connected with serious pathologies, suicides, homicides, fatal road and industrial accidents and many criminal offences. Alcoholism is a widespread social, medical and economic problem in a large section of the population of nearly all ethnic groups. Therefore, it is of great importance to have diagnostic tools (biological markers) to detect excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism. This article deals with gas chromatographic techniques to determine excessive alcohol consumption. The following parameters are described: ethyl alcohol and congeners, ketone bodies, ethyl glucuronide, fatty acid ethyl esters and condensation products like salsolinol.

Pankow JF (1989) Overview of the gas phase retention volume behavior of organic compounds on polyurethane foam. Atmos. Environ. 23: 1107-1111.

Pankow JF (1988) Gas phase retention volume behavior of organic compounds on the sorbent poly(oxy-m-ter-phenyl-2',5'-ylene). Anal. Chem. 60: 950-958.

Pellizzari ED and Krost KJ (1984) Chemical transformations during ambient air sampling for organic vapors. Anal. Chem. 56: 1813-1819.

Schaefer G, Hamilton W and Mathai CV (1997) Implementing the NAAQS and FACA subcommittee for ozone, particulate matter and regional haze. Environ. Man. Oct 1997: 22-28.

Tang H, Lewis EA, Eatough DJ, Burton RM and Farber RJ (1994) Determination of the particle size distribution and chemical composition of semi-volatile organic compounds in atmospheric fine particles with a diffusion denuder sampling system. Atmos. Environ. 28: 939-947.

Turpin BJ and Huntzicker JJ (1994) Investigation of organic aerosol sampling artifacts in the Los Angeles basin. Atmos. Environ. 28: 3061-3071.

Williams EL and Grosjean D (1990) Removal of atmospheric oxidants with annular denuders. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 811-814.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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