Further Reading

Davis JA, James RO and Leckie JO (1978) Surface ionization and complexation at the oxide/water interface.

R. Harjula, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Copyright © 2000 Academic Press

Proper theoretical tools are necessary at all stages in the development of ion exchange applications. Firstly, in the laboratory, when a new application is being developed, theory is helpful in the design of new materials and necessary for the interpretation and quantification of research results. Secondly, theory is needed in the design of industrial and laboratory processes. When the process is being operated, theory is again useful to keep the process under optimal control.

Computation of electrical double layer properties in simple electrolytes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 63: 480-499.

Franzreb M, Holl WH and Sontheimer H (1993) Liquidphase mass transfer in multi-component ion exchange. I. System without chemical reactions in the film. Reactive Polymers 21: 117-133.

Franzreb M, Holl WH and Eberle SH (1995) Liquid-phase mass transfer in multi-component ion exchange. 2. Systems with irreversible chemical reactions in the film. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 34: 2670-2675.

Holl WH, Horst J and Wernet M (1991) Application of the surface complex formation model to ion exchange equilibria. II. Chelating resins. Reactive Polymers 14: 251-261.

Ho ll WH, Horst J and Franzreb M (1993) Application of the surface complex formation model to ion exchange equilibria. III. Anion exchangers. Reactive Polymers 19: 123-136.

Holl WH, Horst J, Franzreb M and Eberle SH (1993) In: Marinsky J and Marcus Y (eds) Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction, a Series of Advances, vol. 11, ch. 3, p. 151. New York-Basel-Hong Kong: Marcel Dekker Inc.

Horst J and Holl WH (1997) Application of the surface complex formation model to ion exchange equilibria. IV. Amphoteric sorption onto y-aluminium oxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 195: 250-260.

Horst J, Ho ll WH and Eberle SH (1990) Application of the surface complex formation model to ion exchange equilibria. I. Reactive Polymers 13: 209.

Stumm W (1992) Chemistry of the Solid-Water Interface. New York: Wiley and Sons.

Ion exchangers are used in very diverse applications in the laboratory and in industry. Considering this, and the fact that a very wide range of different substances can act as ion exchangers, it is not surprising to see in the literature that various sets of nomenclature, conventions and diverse theories exist, reflecting the special features of the applications or materials involved. For instance, one finds rather different definitions for several basic terms of ion exchange in the field of water purification compared to those used in ion exchange chromatography and even diversity in the terminology can be seen within the field of ion chromatography. It is inevitable that various theories must exist for the functioning of different types of ion exchangers, but the

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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