Further Reading

Albright RL and Yarnell PA (1987) Ion-exchange Polymers: Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2nd edn, vol. 8. New York: John Wiley. Camps M, Chatzapoulos JM and Montheard JP (1987-88) Chloromethylation of polystyrene and styrene co-polymers. Journal of Macromolecular Science - Review of Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics C27: 505.

R. W6dzki, Nicholas Copernicus University,

Torun, Poland

Copyright © 2000 Academic Press

Organic ion exchange membranes are made of insoluble polymeric foils, tubes or hollow fibres to which ion exchange groups are covalently bound. The membranes have all the properties typical of ion exchange resins and the ability to keep two different solutions physically separated. Thus, the main property of an ion exchange membrane is a selective exchange of ions and a selective permeability to ions, water or other specifically membrane-soluble species. Although optimizing all the properties would be difficult in the case of one membrane used for a variety of applications, the most desired property is always high membrane selectivity, which allows the separation of ions with low energy consumption and high transport rates. There are many additional requirements for ion exchange membranes, such as low electric resistance, high permselectivity, low free diffusion of salts (leakage), low osmotic water transport, high mechanical strength, high selectivity between ions of the same charge and high chemical stability.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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