Further Reading

Deinhammer RS, Ting EY and Porter MD (1993) Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): a new approach to gradient elution separations. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 362: 295-299. Deinhammer RS, Porter MD and Shimazu K (1995) Retention characteristics of polypyrrole as a stationary phase for the electrochemically modulated liquid chromato-graphic (EMLC) separations of dansyl amino acids. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 387: 35-46. Fujinaga T and Kihara S (1977) Electrolytic chromatography and coulopotentiography - a rapid electrolysis at the column electrode used for the preparation, separation, concentration, and estimation of trace and/or unstable substances. CRC Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 6: 223-253. Ge H and Wallace GG (1989) Characterization of conducting polymeric stationary phases and electrochemically controlled high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical Chemistry 61: 2391-2394. Ge H, Teasdale PR and Wallace GG (1991) Electrochemical chromatography - packings, hardware, and mechanisms of interaction. Journal of Chromatography 544: 305-316.

Ghatak-Roy AR and Martin CR (1986) Electromodulated ion exchange chromatography. Analytical Chemistry 58: 1574-1575. Hern JL and Strohl JH (1978) Modified graphites for chelation and ion exchange. Analytical Chemistry 50: 1955.

Ho MK, Wang S and Porter MD (1998) Electrosorption-based modiRcation of porous graphitic carbon: use of electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography to create a chiral stationary phase for enantiomeric separations. Analytical Chemistry 70: 4314-4319. Lam P, Elliker PR, Wnek GE and Przybycien TM (1995) Towards an electrochemically modulated chromato-graphic stationary phase. Journal of Chromatography 707: 29-33.

66.7 min

Figure 11 Breakthrough curve showing the concentration of a 1.6 ppm solution of dansylated tryptophan at a polypyrrole stationary phase. The applied potential was initially held at - 1.00 V, stepped to 0.00 V for 72.5 min, and then stepped back to - 1.00 V. The mobile phase consisted of 1.6 ppm dansylated amino acid tryptophan in 10 mM pH 6 acetate buffer. (Reproduced with permission from Deinhamer RS, Shimazu K and Porter MD (1995) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 387: 35-46. Copyright Elsevier Science SA.)

Nagaoka T, Fujimoto M, Nakao H et al. (1994) Electrochemical separation of ionic compounds using a conductive stationary phase coated with polyaniline or polypyr-role film, and ion exchange properties of conductive polymers. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 364: 179-189.

Suzuki T, Noble RD and Koval CA (1997) Electrochemistry, stability, and alkene complexation chemistry for copper(I) triflate in aqueous solution. Potential for use in electrochemically modulated complexation-

based separation processes. Inorganic Chemistry 36: 136-140.

Ting EY and Porter MD (1997) Separations of corticos-teroids using electrochemically modulated liquid chroma-tography: selectivity enhancements at a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Analytical Chemistry 69: 675-678.

Ting EY and Porter MD (1998) Column design for electro-chemically modulated liquid chromatography. Analytical Chemistry 70: 94-99.

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