Further Reading

Clift R, Grace JR and Weber ME (1987) Bubbles Drops and Particles. New York: Academic Press. Dobby GS and Finch JA (1986) Flotation column scale-up and modelling. CIM Bulletin 79: 89-96. Finch JA and Dobby GS (1990) Column Flotation. Oxford: Pergamon.

Levenspiel O (1972) Chemical Reaction Engineering. 2nd edn. New York: Wiley. Lynch AJ, Johnson NW, Manlapig EV and Thorne CG (1981) Mineral and Coal Flotation Circuits, Their Simulation and Control. New York: Elsevier. Masliyah JH (1979) Hindered settling in a multi-species particle system. Chemical Engineering Science 34: 1166-1168.

Ross VE and van Deventer JSJ (1988) Mass transport in flotation column froths. Column Flotation '88. Proceedings of the International Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona. Littleton, Colorado: Society of Mining Engineers. Rubinstein JB (1995) Column Flotation, Processes, Designs and Practices. Basel: Gordon and Breach. Schuhmann R. (1942) Flotation kinetics 1: methods for steady state study of flotation process. Journal of Physical Chemistry 46: 891-902. Zhou ZA, Xu Z and Finch JA (1994) On the role of cavitation in particle collection during Sotation - a critical review. Mineral Engineering 7: 1073-1084.

liquid) to ions and molecules, while the most commonly used carriers are air bubbles due to their ready availability, easy handling and very low cost. Compared to other light fluids (e.g. paraffin oil), air has the highest hydrophobicity, and its low density facilitates mass transfer of bubble-target aggregates from the bulk medium to the interface where froth forms and is collected/removed. Flotation was practised around a century ago, mainly for mineral separation applications. It is difficult, if not impossible, to pin down who should be given credit for the

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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