Further Reading

Frei MP and Zeiloff K (1992) Qualitativ und Quantitativ Dünnschicht-Chromatographie. Weinheim: VCH.

Geiss F (1987) Fundamentals of Thin Layer Chromatography. Heidelberg: Alfred Hüthig Verlag.

Jork H, Fünk W, Fischer W and Wimmer H (1989, 1994) Thin-layer Chromatography, Reagents and Detection Methods, vols 1a and 1b. Weinhein: VCH.

Poole CF and Poole SK (1992) Chromatography Today. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Sherma J and Fried B (1994) Thin-layer Chromatography, Techniques and Applications, 3rd edn. Chromatographic Science Series, vol. 66. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Touchstone JC (1992) Practice in Layer Chromatography, 3rd edn. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Touchstone JC and Sherma J (1979) Densitometry in Thin Layer Chromatography Practice and Applications. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Wall PE and Wilson ID (1995) Thin-layer chromatogra-phy-techniqües. In: Encyclopedia of Analytical Science. London: Academic Press.

Zlatkis A and Kaiser RE (1977) HPTLC High Performance Thin-layer Chromatography. New York: Elsevier.

focused on a faster microchromatographic method, which allowed the exact identification of adsorbed substances. This situation encouraged the transition from a regular column to an open column, a thin layer of adsorbent.

Izmailov and Shraiber are regarded as the inventors of TLC (Table 1). In 1938 they described a method in which microscopic slides were coated with 2 mm layers of a slurry made of chalk, talc, magnesium oxide, lime aluminium oxide or other adsorbents and water. On drying, a thin adsorbent layer was formed. The authors investigated belladonna and other plant extracts by placing a drop of the extract on to the layer. This resulted in the so-called ultra chromato-gram that was visualized under ultraviolet light. The chromatogram was then developed with several drops of solvent. The most important advantage of the new method in comparison to column chromatography was the short time of analysis and the low consumption of adsorbents, solvents and samples.

Crowe reported in 1941 the use of a micro-chromatographic method to select suitable solvents for column chromatography. The procedure was

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Solar Panel Basics

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