Fumonisins

Fumonisins B1 (Figure 2) and B2 are metabolites of Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum. They are common natural contaminants of corn and have caused deaths in horses and swine. Small amounts have been found in cornmeal and breakfast cereals. In order to ensure that they are not present in food in excessive amounts, methods of analysis have been developed. Most methods use LC after formation of derivatives of the primary amine function with reagents such as o-phthaldialdehyde. However, a rever-sed-phase TLC determination has been devised. The fumonisins, dissolved in acetonitrile-water (1:1 v/v), are spotted at the origin of a 10 x 10 cm C18 plate and developed with methanol-1% KCl in water (3 : 1 v/v). After drying, the plates are sprayed with 0.1 molL"1 sodium borate (pH 8-9) followed by fluorescamine (0.4 mg mL-1 in acetonitrile). After a 1 min delay, further spraying with 0.01 mol L_1 boric acid-acetonitrile (2 : 3 v/v) is carried out. Examination under 365 nm ultraviolet light reveals fluorescent yellow spots of fumonisin B1 (RF = 0.5) and fumonisin B2 (RF = 0.1).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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