Frothers

Frothers are added to create a stable dispersion of bubbles in the pulp which will subsequently create a reasonably stable froth and which will allow selective drainage from the froth of entrained gangue and improve the flotation selectivity. The frother also affects the flotation kinetics. They are nonionic heteropolar molecules and, unlike collectors, are not associated with particular categories of minerals. The frothing ability of a compound is associated with hydroxyl (-OH), ester (-COOR) and carbonyl (-CO) chemical groups, and commercial frothers can be divided into three main categories: alcohols, al-koxyparafRns, polyglycols and polyglycol ethers. The polar end of the frother molecule forms hydrogen bonds with the water and no mineral-frother bonds are formed. The nonpolar end is hydrophobic so that the frother concentrates at the air-water interface and is thus described as being surface-active. This affects the surface tension, which indicates the difference between the surface activity of frothers and causes a stable froth to form. In general, increased surface activity results in increased floatability and froth stability.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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