Flow Conditions of HPLC Mobile Phases

Owing to the properties of the microwave, the sample size is geometrically restricted to a thickness of 0.3 mm, allowing only a total sample volume of some 50 |L (if the fluid phase contains water, the volume could be larger otherwise). The sample cuvette (a quartz flat cell) is located in a fixed position inside the instrument having open access from the bottom and top allowing tubing to be attached to fill the cuvette upwards and to flow out at the top of the instrument. This vertical flow direction of the mobile phase helps to avoid accidental trapping of gas bubbles that could spoil any spectral measurement. At a flow of 1 mL min"1 no turbulence occurs at any site within the sample cuvette ensuring homogeneous filling and flushing without any problem. The use of capillary tubing minimizes the dead volume between the common UV/visual light monitor and the ESR spectrometer and thus the flow delay between these two devices.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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