After electrophoresis is complete, the gel is removed from the apparatus for localization of the separated zones. Procedures have been described for the direct visualization of unfixed proteins within gels. How

Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins, pp. 37-140. Bristol: Wright.

Tanford C (1961) Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules, p. 417, pp. 425-532. New York: John Wiley. Wedler G (1982) Lehrbuch der physikalischen Chemie, pp.

172-212. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie. West RC (eds) (1976-1977) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 57th edn. Cleveland, Ohio: CRC Press.

ever, for the majority of protein detection methods it is necessary to precipitate and immobilize (i.e. 'fix') the separated proteins within the gel and to remove any nonprotein components which might interfere with subsequent staining. Gels that are to be used for visualization of enzymatic activity of the separated proteins must not be fixed. The best general purpose fixative is 20% w/v trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as it gives effective precipitation of most proteins. Acid methanol (or ethanol), typically a solution containing 10% v/v acetic acid, 45% v/v methanol, and 45% deionized water, is often used for gel fixation, but it should be noted that this can be ineffective for small proteins, basic proteins and glycoproteins. Aqueous solutions of reagents such as 5% w/v formaldehyde or 2% w/v glutaraldehyde can be used to cross-link proteins covalently to the gel matrix, but this is not a commonly used approach.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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