First Stage of Purification

The targeted degree of purification varies with the intent of the investigator. The minimal purification is removing large fragments of the host cell. Pelleting in a centrifuge is used. This stabilizes the bacteriophages by preventing adsorption of the bacteriophages to fragments of host cell membrane. Pelleting is typically done immediately after lysis for small ( < 1 L) cultures. Pelleting is sometimes delayed until after precipitation of bacteriophage particles for large cultures. The precipitation is performed by both raising the salt concentration (typically to 0.5 mol L_1) and adding a high molecular weight polyethylene glycol. Details vary among the different bacteriophages. The precipitation concentrates bacteriophage particles for subsequent steps in purification. Alternatively, bac-teriophage particles can be concentrated by pelleting, without precipitation. The newer centrifuges can pellet bacteriophages in increased volume and decreased time. Bacteriophages in eight 50 mL tubes can now be pelleted in 1-4 h. The time depends on how rapidly the bacteriophage particles sediment at any given speed of centrifugation.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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