Filtration Matrices

A variety of polymers are used to manufacture filter media. Each type has specific attributes and could be best for certain applications but could be a complete failure for other applications. The same filter material from different manufacturers can differ in physical properties and in filtration characteristics. However, the chemical compatibility of the material is almost the same irrespective of the manufacturer (Table 2).

Incompatible chemicals can cause shedding, affecting pore size, as well as adding extractables. Hy-drophobic membranes have to be wet before starting the filtration. In some cases, it is desirable to convert the hydrophobic membranes into hydrophilic membranes by modifying the surface. Surface reactions can also be used for changing the surface charge. The polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes can be treated to render them hydrophilic and can be reacted to modify the surface charge. The use of aggressive solvents should be avoided with these filters to minimize deterioration of the surface. Membranes used in filtration usually have surface-active agents incorporated in them to make the pre-wetting easier.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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